Vol 8, No 4 (2017) > Mechanical Engineering >

Concept Application for Pipelines using a Submerged Floating Tunnel for Use in the Oil and Gas Industry

Ery Budiman, I.G.P. Raka, Endah Wahyuni


Abstract: This paper describes the effort to develop a pipeline concept as a substitute for conventional pipelines that lie on the seabed. A submarine pipeline in a submerged floating tunnel (SFT) is presented as a potential way to avoid pipeline-related environmental concerns. The key task in developing this submarine pipeline concept is to integrate solutions to the environmental challenges associated with submarine pipelines into the SFT structure.
From a technical standpoint, one of the most important design tasks is to calculate the SFT’s buoyancy weight ratio (BWR) value, thereby determining the tunnel’s stability. The greatest threat to stability is the phenomenon of tether slack, which occurs at a specific BWR value. The pipeline’s weight affects its BWR value, so the weight must be restricted to ensure that tether slack does not occur. In the present study, the proposed SFT’s BWR value was simulated by testing a laboratory model in various ballasts. Significant waves and individual waves in a hundred-year return period were investigated based on data related to Java Sea waves at the Indonesian Hydrodynamic Laboratory (IHL).
This study tested the SFT laboratory model against regular waves to find the BWR value at which tether slack might occur. The obtained BWR value was used to determine the requirement for total pipeline weight. Using a 1:100 scale of the real environmental conditions, the laboratory results revealed that slack occurs in a significant wave when the BWR value is 1.2, making the maximum pipeline weight to be placed in the SFT 534 tons. For the individual wave, slack occurs when the BWR value is 1.4, making the maximum pipeline weight to be placed in the SFT267.214 tons.
Keywords: Advantage of pipeline placement; Buoyancy weight ratio (BWR); Snap loading; Stability; Submarine pipeline

Full PDF Download


Bhattacharyya, R., 1978. Dynamic of Marine Vehicles. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons

Budiman, E., Wahyuni, E., Raka, I.G.P., Suswanto B., 2016a. Conceptual Study of Submarine Pipeline using Submerged Floating Tunnel. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Volume 11(9), pp. 5842–5846

Budiman, E., Wahyuni, E., Raka, I.G.P., Suswanto, B., 2016b. Experiments on Snap Force in Tethers of Submerged Floating Tunnel Model under Hydrodynamic Loads in Case of Shallow Water. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Volume 11(24), pp. 14383–14390

Dean, R.G., Dalrymple, R.A., 2000. Water Wave Mechanics for Engineers and Scientists. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd

Det Norske Veritas DNV- GL, 2015. Float pipe: A pipeline Concept for Challenging Seabed and Deep Water Conditions. Offshore Mediterranean Conference and Exhibition, Ravenna, Italy

Det Norske Veritas. DNV OSF101, 2000-Submarine Pipeline Systems- Veritec

Forum of European National Highway Research Laboratories, 1996. Analysis of the Submerged Floating Tunnel Concept. In: FEHRL Report No. 1996/2a. Berkshire: Transport Research Laboratory

Gimsing, N.J., 1983. Cable Supported Bridges Concept and Design. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons

Goeller J.E., 1971. Analytical and Experimental Study of Dynamic Response of Segmented Cable System. Journal of Sound Vibration, Volume 18(3), pp. 311–324

Guo, B., Song, S., Chacko, J., Ghalambor, A., 2005. Offshore Pipelines. Singapore: Elsevier

Hennessey, C.M., Pearson, N.J., Plaut, R.H., 2005. Experimental Snap Loading of Synthetic Ropes. Shock and Vibration, Volume 12, pp. 163–175

Huang, S., Vassalos, D., 1993. A Numerical Method for Predicting Snap Loading of Marine Cables. Applied Ocean Research, Volume 15, pp. 235–242

Lee, P.E., Jaeyoung, 2009. Offshore Pipelines and Riser. Houston, TX: CSO AKER Engineering

Long, X., Ge, F., Wang, L., Hong, Y.S., 2008. Effect of Fundamental Structure Parameter on Dynamic Response of Submerged Floating Tunnel under Dynamic Load. Acta Mechanica Sinica, Volume 25(3), pp. 335–344

Lu, W., Ge, F., Wang, L., Hong, Y., 2010. Slack Phenomenon in Tethers of Submerged Floating Tunnel under Hydrodynamic Loads. Procedia Engineering, Volume 4, pp. 243–251

Patel, M.H., Park, H.I., 1995. Tensioned Buoyant Platform Tether Response to Short Duration Tension Loss. Marine Structures, Volume 8, pp. 543–533

Sunder P., 1994. Wave Impact Force on a Horizontal Cylinder. Dissertation for Doctor of Philosophy, University of British Columbia

Vassalos, D., Huang, S., 1996. Dynamics of Small-Sagged Taut-Slack Marine Cables. Computers and Structures, Volume 58(3), pp. 557–562

Wahyuni, E., Budiman, E., Raka, I.G.P., 2012. Dynamic Behaviour of Submerged Floating Tunnels under Seismic Loadings with Different Cable Configurations. Journal for Technology and Science, Volume 23(2), pp. 82–86

Yong, B., Qiang, B., 2005. Subsea Pipelines and Riser. Singapore: Elsevier