Vol 8, No 4 (2017) > Metalurgy and Material Engineering >

Calorific Value Analysis of Azadirachta Excelsa and Endospermum Malaccense as Potential Solid Fuels Feedstock

Nazia Hossain, Rafidah Jalil, T.M.I Mahlia, JUliana Zaini

 

Abstract: Thermal conversion of woody biomass to fuel has been intensified in recent decades due to the depletion of fossil fuels, greenhouse effect and high energy demand worldwide. Screening the potential feedstock is being considered as one of the alternatives to identifying the most suitable biomass resources prior to being converted into renewable energy in the form of solid fuels, such as charcoal and briquettes. Generally, high calorific value (CV) indicates high potential of feedstock for briquettes, torrefied wood and coal generation. In this study, CV was characterized using a bomb calorimeter that was based on 3 different ranges of moisture content (MC) that are ˃ 25%, 20%−25% and ˂ 20% for two tropical tree species, namely Azadirachta excelsa (Sentang) and Endospermum malaccense (Sesenduk), respectively. This standard method for the characterization process was considered to determine the CV. Average CV for both samples ranged between 16−17 MJ/kg. The highest CV was 17.3490 MJ/kg and 17.1273 MJ/kg for Sesenduk and Sentang, respectively and calorific values were obtained at MC less than 20%. The experimental study demonstrated that the decreasing value of MC has increased the CV because of the high value of oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) ratio in the wood; additionally, the energy density of the wood sample was also improved when CV increased. Both of these species were proved to contain the potential of being feedstock as wood fuel resources, since they carry standard CVs, obtain fast growth with suitable conditions in Malaysia and are grown at very low cost of production for plantations, fertilizer, pesticides, labor, transportation and handling.
Keywords: Azadirachta excelsa; Bioenergy conversion; Calorific value; Endospermum malaccense; Energy density; Moisture content

Full PDF Download

References


Ahmad, M., Subawi, H., 2013. New Van Krevelen Diagram and its Correlation with the Heating Value of Biomass. Research Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Management, Volume 2(10), pp. 295–301

Bagramov, G., 2010. Economy of Converting Wood to Biocoal in: Bioenergy Technology. Volume Masters of Technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology, pp. 80–101

Chaula, Z., Said, M., John, G., 2014. Thermal Characterization of Pine Sawdust as Energy Source Feedstock. Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy, Volume 4(4), pp. 57–64

Davis, E., 2007. E10-OWI-CHM-083, Marshall Space Flight Centre Organizational Work Institution, Available online at: https://prod.nais.nasa.gov/eps/eps_data/124216-OTHER-004-003.pdf

Hashim, M.N., Mohd Hazim, M.A., Syafinie, A.M., 2015. Strategic Forest Plantation Establishment in Malaysia for Future Product Development and Utilization, Kuala Lumpur International Agriculture, Forestry and Plantation, September 12-13, 2015 Hotel Putra, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Hossain, N., Jalil, R., 2015. Analyses of Bio-Energy Properties from Malaysian Local Plants: Sentang and Sesendok. Asia Pacific Journal of Energy and Environment, Volume 2(6), pp. 141–144

Hossain, N., Zaini, J., Mahlia, T.M.I., 2017. A Review of Bioethanol Production from Plant Based Waste Biomass by Yeast Fermentation. International Journal of Technology, Volume 8(1), pp. 5–18

Jalil, R., Ibrahim, W.A., Elham, P., Hashim, M.N., 2015a. Charcoal Production from Sesenduk. In: Forest Products Seminar: Properties and Utilization of Sesenduk for Value-Added Products (FRIM Proceedings), Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia, pp. 61–66

Jalil, R., Ibrahim, W.A., Elham, P., Hashim, S., 2015b. Torrefied Wood from Sesenduk. In: Proceedings of the Forest Products Seminar: Properties and Utilization of Sesenduk for Value-Added Products, FRIM proceeding, October, 2015, FRIM, Kepong, Malaysia. pp. 61–66

McKendry, P., 2002. Energy Production from Biomass (Part 1): Overview of Biomass. Bioresource Technology, Volume 83, pp. 37–46

Milne, T.A., Brennan, A.H., Glenn, B.H., 1990. Sourcebook of Method of Analysis for Biomass and Biomass Coversion Process, Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd., New York, USA

Norhisham, A., Faizah, A., Zaidon, A., 2015. Effects of Moisture Content on the Bamboo Borer Dinoderus Minutus. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, Volume 27(3), pp. 334–341

Nunesa, L.J.R., Matiasa, J.C.O., Catalão, J.P.S., 2014. A Review on Torrefied Biomass Pellets as a Sustainable Alternative to Coal in Power Generation. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 40, pp. 153–160

Odoh, E., Ugwuoke, E., Ihedioha, O., Osondu, L., Ayogu, V., 2015. Effect of Moisture Content on Calorific Value of Some Nigerian Soft Wood. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, Volume 2(11), pp. 379–381

Oduor, N.M., Githiomi, J.K., 2013. Fuel-wood Energy Properties of Prosopis juliflora and Prosopis pallida Grown in Baringo District, Kenya. African Journal of Agricultural Research, Volume 8(21), pp. 2476–2481

Omoniyi, T.E., Olorunnisola, A.O., 2014. Experimental Characterisation of Bagasse Biomass Material for Energy Production. International Journal of Engineering and Technology, Volume 4, pp. 582–589

Onuegbu, T.U., Ogbu, I.M., Ejikeme, C., 2012. Comparative Analyses of Densities and Calorific Values of Wood and Briquettes Samples Prepared at Moderate Pressure and Ambient Temperature. International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Science, Volume 2(1), pp. 40–45

Poopathy, V., 2002. Pitching for Plantation Wood. In: Frim in Focus, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). FRIM, Kepong, Malaysia, pp. 1–15

Uyup, M.K.A., Husain, H., Salim, M.T., Hiziroglu, Ramly, A.A., 2012. Some Properties of Chemically Modified Sesenduk (Endospermum malaccense) Wood Exposed to Weathering. In: IUFRO Conference Forest Product Division 5, Malaysia