Vol 7, No 8 (2016) > Mechanical Engineering >

Deposit Characterization of a Diesel Engine Combustion Chamber by Droplets at Hot Chamber Temperature: Effect of Temperature on Evaporation Time and Deposit Structure

Muhammad Taufiq Suryantoro, Bambang Sugiarto, Danniel Chistian, Bintang Samudra, Zofarizal Gusfa


Abstract: In 2016, the mandatory use of biodiesel as a substitute fuel by up to 20%,
as introduced by the Indonesian Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources,
forced vehicle manufacturers to invent suitable engines that would accept
biodiesel. The use of biodiesel in such a large proportion is highly risky,
particularly due to the formation of deposits in the combustion chamber
engines. The previous method of fuel droplets are placed on a hot plate
approach produces deposits are slightly different from those generated by a
real engine, therefore to obtain realistic deposits it is necessary to modify
this method so temperatures as hot as those in a real engine. In this study,
the potential deposit formation of biodiesel fuel was examined by conducting
the deposition process and the evaporation of fuel on a stainless-steel plate
(SS), which was placed in a closed space. Deposit characterization was carried out
on a hot plate using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The test results showed
differences in the structures of the deposits produced by biodiesel and diesel
fuel; fine structures were seen in the former, while those of the latter were
rougher and more porous. Deposit results that are similar to what is seen in a
real engine will be very helpful for knowing the patterns, structures, and mechanism
of the formation of deposits in such an environment.
Keywords: Antioxidants; Biodiesel; Deposits; Structure; Test rig

Full PDF Download


Arifin, Y.M., Arai, M., 2010. The Effect of Hot Surface Temperature on Diesel Fuel Deposit Formation. Fuel, Volume 89(5), pp. 934–942

Arifin, Y.M., Furuhata, T., Saito, M., Arai, M., 2008. Diesel and Bio-diesel Fuel Deposits on A Hot Surface. Fuel, Volume 87(89), pp. 1601–1609

Berthiaume, D., Tremblay, A., 2006. Study of the Rancimat Test Method in Measuring the Oxidation Stability of Biodiesel Ester and Blends. Quibec, Canada: OLEOTEK, Inc., & Natural Resources

Chevron, 2007. Diesel Fuels Technical Review. Available online at: https://www.chevron.com/-/media/chevron/operations/documents/diesel-fuel-tech-review.pdf

Fattah, I.M.R., Masjuki, H.H., Kalam, M.A., Hazrat, B.M.M.S., Imtenan, A.M.A., 2014. Effect of Antioxidants on Oxidation Stability of Biodiesel Derived from Vegetable-and Animal-Based Feedstocks. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 30, pp. 356–370

Frankel, E.N., 2005. Lipid Oxidation, edited by P.J. Barnes & Associates (2nd edition). Bridgwater, England: The Oily Press

Lepperhoff, G., Houben, M., 1993. Mechanism of Deposit Formation in Internal Combustion Engines and Heat Exchangers. SAE Technical Paper 931032

Lin, Y.S., Lin, H.P., 2011. Spray Characteristics of Emulsified Castor Biodiesel on Engine Emissions and Deposit Formation. Renewable Energy, Volume 36(12), pp. 3507–3516

Ma’ruf, M., 2015. The Effects of Additives Antioxidant on Biodiesel Deposit Formation, Study on Hot Plate and Diesel. Graduate Thesis. Departement of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia

Munson, B.R., Okiishi T.H., Huebsch, W.W.L., 2009. Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics (6th edition), John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New Jersey, USA

Pulkrabek, W.W., 1997. Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine. New Jersey: Prentice Hall

Tang, H., Wang, A., Salley, S.O., Ng, K.Y.S., 2008. The Effect of Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants on the Oxidative Stability of Biodiesel. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, Volume 85(4), pp. 373–382

Wibowo, E., 2015. Bioenergy Development in Indonesia. Directorate Bioenergy, Directorate General of New Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation Indonesia

Yang, Z., Hollebone, B.P., Wang, Z., Yang, C., Landriault, M., 2013. Factors Affecting Oxidation Stability of Commercially Available Biodiesel Products. Fuel Processing Technology, Volume 106, pp. 366–375

Zhang, H., Xing, J., Guo, C., 2013. Thermal Analysis of Diesel Engine Piston. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, Volume 5(9), pp. 388–393