Vol 7, No 8 (2016) > Metalurgy and Material Engineering >

Preparation and Characterization of Carbon Composite Paper from Coconut Coir for Gas Diffusion Layer

Fredina Destyorini, Achmad Subhan, Nanik Indayaningsih, Bambang Prihandoko, Anne Zulfia Syahrial


Abstract: The gas diffusion layer
(GDL) is one of the critical components of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell
(PEMFC). It is generally made of a fossil-fuel-based carbon material. In this
study, carbon composite paper (CCP) for GDL was prepared by using carbon
material obtained from coconut coir. To obtain the CCP, 80 wt% carbon material
from the coconut coir and 20 wt% polymer binder (ethylene vinyl acetate and
polyethylene glycol) were mixed in xylene solvent at 100°C, cast on molded
glass, and then rolled. The carbon material consists of a mixture of carbon
fibers (length: 2 mm) and powders (size: 74 µm). Subsequently, the CCP was
treated with polytetrafluoroethylene solution (10 wt%). The physical properties
of the CCPs, such as through-plane electrical conductivity, porosity, density,
and hydrophobic properties, were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and
energy-dispersive spectroscopy mapping were used to analyze the morphology and
polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) distribution in the CCP. The through-plane
conductivity test showed that CCP with 70 wt% carbon fiber, 10 wt% carbon
powder, and 20 wt% polymer was the optimum sample, and it showed the highest
electrical conductivity of 2.22 S cm-1. The physical properties of
PTFE-treated CCP, such as porosity, density, and contact angle, were almost
similar to that of commercial carbon paper used as a GDL. Therefore, the CCP
prepared from coconut coir can be applied as a GDL in a PEMFC.
Keywords: Carbonization; Carbon composite paper; Coconut coir; Electrical conductivity; Gas diffusion layer

Full PDF Download


Bashforth, F., Adams, J.C., 1883. An Attempt to Test the Theories of Capillary Action by Comparing the Theoretical and Measured Forms of Drops of Fluid with an Explanation of the Method of Integration Employed in Constructing the Tables which Give the Theoretical Forms of Such Drops. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press

Bhatt, S., Gupta, B., Sethi, V.K., Pandey, M., 2012. Polymer Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell: A Review. International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, Volume 2(1), pp. 219-226

Chen-Yang, Y.W., Hung, T.F., Huang, J., Yang, F.L., 2007. Novel Single-layer Gas Diffusion Layer based on PTFE/Carbon Black Composite for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell. Journal of Power Sources, Volume 173(1), pp. 183-188

Han, C., Kim, I., Sun, H., Park, G., Lee, J., Lee, H., Shim, J., 2012. Effect of Carbon Content on the Physical Properties of Carbon Composite Gas Diffusion Layer in PEMFCs. International Journal of Electrochemical Science, Volume 7(9), pp. 8627-8636

Hung, C., Chiu, C., Wang, S., Chiang, I., Yang, H., 2012. Ultra Thin Gas Diffusion Layer Development for PEMFC. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 37(13), pp. 12805-12812

Indayaningsih, N., Priadi, D., Zulfia, A., Suprapedi, S., 2011. Analysis of Coconut Carbon Fibers for Gas Diffusion Layer Material. Key Engineering Materials, Volume 462463, pp. 937-942

Kinumoto, T., Matsumura, T., Yamaguchi, K., Matsuoka, M., Tsumura, T., Toyoda, M., 2015. Material Processing of Bamboo for Use as a Gas Diffusion Layer in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, Volume 3(7), pp. 1374-1380

Lee, T., Ooi, C., Othman, R., Yeoh, F., 2014. Activated Carbon Fiber-the Hybrid of Carbon Fiber and Activated Carbon. Reviews on Advanced Materials Science, Volume 4(36), pp. 118-136

Poochai, C., Pongprayoon, T., 2012. Gas Diffusion Layer from Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes/Polyacrylonitrile Composite Fiber for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell. In: Proceeding of 10th International Conference on Heat Transfer, Thermal Engineering and Environment. Istanbul, Turkey, pp. 105-

Wen, S., Chung, D.D.L., 2007. Partial Replacement of Carbon Fiber by Carbon Black in Multifunctional Cement–matrix Composites. Carbon, Volume 45(3), pp. 505-513

Yoon, G., Park, Y., 2013. Enhanced Hydrophobicity of GDL by a Novel Coating Process in PEM Fuel Cells. International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, Volume 13(7), pp. 1153-1159

Zhi-yong, X., Gu-yin, J., Min, Z., Zhe-an, S., Ming-yu, Z., Jian-xun, C., Qi-zhong, H., 2010. Improved Properties of Carbon Fiber Paper as Electrode for Fuel Cell by Coating Pyrocarbon via CVD Method. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, Volume 20(8), pp. 1412-1417