Vol 8, No 2 (2017) > Industrial Engineering >

Physiological Responses of the Driver in a Solar Heated Car Cabin

Ilham Bakri, Nilda Nilda, Ahmad Wira Indrawan



The aim of this study
was to evaluate the physiological responses of the driver when he or she enters
the vehicle cabin for the first time after the vehicle was in a parking lot.
Eight healthy male students underwent tests in vehicle cabins that had been
parked for two hours without any shade. Immediately after they entered the
cabin, they ran one of the test conditions: (1) all windows in the cabin were
fully lowered and the air conditioning (AC) system was off (CON); (2) all
windows were closed and the AC was set at the first speed level (AC 1); or (3)
all windows were closed and the AC was set at the second speed level (AC 2).
The attempt to decrease the air temperature in the cabin by opening all the
windows did not provide a significant impact on the participants’ physiological
responses. Decreasing the air temperature by turning the vehicle air
conditioning on lowered mean skin temperature and heart rate, but not core body
temperature. However, using the first or second speed of the AC did not make
any significant difference in the physiological responses of the volunteers.

Keywords: Physiological responses; Vehicle air conditioning system; Vehicle cabin

Full PDF Download


Alahmer, A., Mayyas, A., Mayyas, A.A., Omar, M.A., Shan, D., 2011. Vehicular Thermal Comfort Models; A Comprehensive Review. Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 31, pp. 995-1002

Al-Kayiem, H.H., Sidik, M.F., Munusamy, Y.R., 2010. Study on the Thermal Accumulation and Distribution Inside a Parked Car Bin. American Journal of Applied Science, Volume 7(6), pp. 784-789

Basar, M.F., Musa, M., Faizal, M.Y., Razik, N.H.A., 2013. Alternative Way in Reducing Car Cabin Temperature using Portable Car Cooling System (Car-Cool). International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE), Volume 3(3), pp. 140-143

Brooks, J.E., Parsons, K.C., 1999. An Ergonomics Investigation into Human Thermal Comfort using an Automobile Seat Heated with Encapsulated Carbonized Fabric (EFC). Ergonomics, Volume 42, pp. 661-673

Cengiz, T.G., Babalık, F.C., 2006. An On-The-Road Experiment into the Thermal Comfort of Car Seats. Applied Ergonomics, Volume 38, pp. 337-347

Gilles, T., 2015. Automotive Engines: Diagnosis, Repair, Rebuilding. 7th Edition. College Learning, NY, USA

Hardy, J.D., DuBois, E.F., 1938. The Technique of Measuring Radiation and Convection. The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 15(5), pp. 461-475

Jacob, G., 2010. Solar Resources in Indonesia, Training Course on Renewable Energy Part II - MEMR CASINDO, 14-18 June 2010, Jakarta, Indonesia

Jasni, M.A., Nasir, F.M., 2012. Experimental Comparison Study of the Passive Methods in Reducing Car Cabin Interior Temperature. International Conference on Mechanical, Automobile and Robotics Engineering (ICMAR'2012), Penang, Malaysia

Mayer, E., Schwab, R., 1999. Correlation between Thermal Response and Teq, Assessment of Thermal Climate in Operator’s Cabs. Seminar, 18-19 November 1999, Florence, Italy

McGuffin, R., Burke, R., Huizenga, C., Hui, Z., Vlahinos, A., Fu, G., 2002. Human Thermal Comfort Model and Manikin. SAE Technical Paper Series, paper 2002-01-1955

Mezrhab, A., Bouzidi, M., 2006. Computation of Thermal Comfort Inside a Passenger Car Compartment. Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 26(14–15), pp. 1697–1704

Morrison, G.L., Sudjito, 1992. Solar Radiation Data for Indonesia. Solar Energy, Volume 49(1), pp. 65-76

Norin, F., Wyon, D.P., 1992. Driver Vigilance—The Effects of Compartment Temperature. SAE Technical Paper, No. 920168. Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., Warrendale, PA, USA

Rahim, R., Lau, S.S.Y, Baharuddin, Hidayah, R., 2010. Daylight Measurement Data in Makassar-Indonesia. 11th International Conference on Sustainable Environmental Architecture (SENVAR), 14-16 October 2010,


Rugh, J., Hovland, V., Andersen, S.O., 2004. Significant Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions by Improving Vehicle Air Conditioning. 15th Annual Earth Technologies Forum and Mobile Air Conditioning Summit, 15 April 2004, Washington, DC

Rumbayan, M., Nagasaka, K., 2012. Solar Irradiation Estimation with Neural Network Method using Meteorological Data in Indonesia. International Journal of Technology, Volume 3(2), pp. 110-120

Saidur, R., Masjuki, H.H., Hasanuzzaman, M., 2009. Performance of an Improved Solar Car Ventilator. International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering (IJMME), Volume 4(1), pp. 24-34

Snycerski, M., Wasiak, I.F., 2002. Influence of Furniture Covering Textiles on Moisture Transport in a Car Seat Upholstery Package. AUTEX Research Journal, Volume 2, pp. 126-131

Sudhir, C.V., Al Dhali, J.M., 2015. Effect of Solar Ventilation on Air Conditioning System Performance of the Car Parked under Sun Light. APRN Journal of Engineering and Applied Science, Volume 10(22), pp. 10618-10622

Tanabe, S., Arens, E.A., Bauman, F.S., Zhang, H., Madsen, T.L. 1994. Evaluating Thermal Environments by using a Thermal Manikin with Controlled Skin Surface Temperature. ASHRAE Transaction, Volume 100(1), pp. 39-48

Tseng, C.-Y., Yan, Y.-A., Leong, J.C., 2014. Thermal Accumulation in a General Car Cabin Model. Journal of Fluid Flow, Heat and Mass Transfer, Volume 1, pp. 48-56

Vishweshwara, S.C., Al Dhali, J.M., 2013. Study of Excessive Cabin Temperatures of the Car Parked in Oman and its Mitigation. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Engineering, Volume 4(9), pp. 18-22

Walgama, C., Fackrell, S., Karimi, M., Fartaj, A., Rankin, G.W., 2006. Passenger Thermal Comfort in Vehicles—A Review. In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Volume 220(5), pp. 543-562