Vol 8, No 2 (2017) > Industrial Engineering >

Evaluation of Machinist’s Fatigue at PT. Kereta Api Persero DAOP II Bandung

Daniel Siswanto, Victoria Lestari, Hardianto Iridiastadi



Machinists have a big
responsibility in controlling trains and maintaining the safety of trips. When
a machinist has an irregular work schedule, monotonous and long schedules, he
may experience fatigue while on duty. Fatigue can cause a decrease in
performance and lead the machinist to make mistakes that can later be the cause
of railway accidents. Fatigue assessments, then, become an important program
that can be used by management to improve railway safety. In this study, a
fatigue evaluation was conducted among 30 machinists working at the Indonesian
Railway Company (PT. Kereta Api Indonesia or PT. KAI). The evaluation consists
of assessing the quality of sleep with The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index
(PSQI), the measurement of subjective sleepiness with Karolinska Sleepiness
Scale (KSS), the measurement of secondary work performance with Psychomotor
Vigilance Test (PVT), and heart rate measurements employing a heart rate
monitor (Beurer PM-18). Results of this study showed that most of the
machinists experienced sleep quality problems. Also, the sleepiness level of
the machinists continued to increase at work and the reaction time was worse at
the end of his shift, although levels of physical fatigue were not substantial.
Suggestions were proposed to the management, including new work schedules using
shift rotations in order to reduce fatigue.

Keywords: Fatigue; Machinist; Performance; Railway; Sleepiness

Full PDF Download


Accident Reports, 2016. Railway Safety. Available online at http://knkt.dephub.go.id/knkt/ntsc_railway/railway.htm. Accessed on July 29, 2016

Baulk, S.D., Bigss, S.N., Reid, K.J., van den Heuvel, C.J., Dawson, D., 2008. Chasing the Silver Bullet: Measuring Driver Fatigue using Simple and Complex Task. Accident Analysis and Prevention, Volume 40, pp. 396–402

Breus, M.J., 2015. Sleep Habits: More Important Than You Think. Available online at http://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/features/important-sleep-habits

Buysse, D.J., Reynolds III, C.F., Monk, T.H., Berman, S.R., Kupfer, D.J., 1989. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: A New Instrument for Psychiatric Practice and Research. Journal of Psychiatric Research, Volume 28(2), pp. 193–213

Carole, S., 2012. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The Hartford Institute for Geriatric Nursing, New York University, College of Nursing. Available online at https://consultgeri.org/try-this/general-assessment/issue-6.1.pdf. Accessed on July 20, 2016

Dawson, D., Searle, A.K., Peterson, J.L., 2014. Look Before You (s)leep: Evaluating the Use of Fatigue Detection Technologies within a Fatigue Risk Management System for the Road Transport Industry. Sleep Medicine Reviews, Volume 18, pp. 141–152

Desai, A.V., Haque, M.A., 2006. Vigilance Monitoring for Operator Safety: A Simulation Study on Highway Driving. Journal of Safety Research, Volume 37, pp. 139–147

Harma, M., Sallinen, M., Ranta, R., Mutanen, P., Muller, K., 2002. The Effect of an Irregular Shift System on Sleepiness at Work in Train Drivers and Railway Traffic Controllers. J. Sleep Res., Volume 11, pp. 141–151

Hirshkowitz, M., Whiton, K., Albert, S.M., Alessi, C., Bruni, O., DonCarlos, L., Hazen, N., Herman, J., Katz, E.S., Kheirandish-Gozal, L., Neubauer, D.N., O’Donnell, A.E., Ohayon, M., Peever, J., Rawding, R., Sachdeva, R.C., Setters, B., Vitiello, M.V.,Ware, J.C, Hillard, P.J.A., 2015. National Sleep Foundation’s Sleep Time Duration Recommendations: Methodology and Results Summary. Sleep Health: Journal of the National Sleep Foundation, Volume 1, pp. 40–43

Kamalakannan, B., Groves, W., Freivalds, A., 2007. Predictive Models for Estimating Metabolic Workload based on Heart Rate and Physical Characteristics. The Journal of SH & E Research, Volume 4(1), pp. 1–26

Kim, D.S., Beak, D.H., Yoon, W.C., 2008. Developing a Computer-aided System for Analyzing Human Error in Railway Operations. World Congress on Railway Research, Seoul, Korea. Available online at http://hdl.handle.net/10203/7892. Accessed on July 29, 2016

Kumar, A., Sinha, P.K., 2008. Human Error Control in Railways. Jourdan Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Volume 2(4), pp. 183–190

Phillips, R.O., 2015. A Review of Definitions of Fatigue – and a Sstep Towards a Whole Definition. Transportation Research Part F, Volume 29, pp. 48–56

Rajaratnam, S.M.W., Jones, C.B., 2004. Lessons about Sleepiness and Driving from the Selby Rail Disaster Case: R v Gary Neil Hart. Chronobiology International, Volume 21(6), pp. 1073–1077

Sanders, M.S., McCormick, E.J., 1993. Human Factors in Engineering and Design 7th ed., New York: McGraw-Hill

Thiffault, P., Bergeron, J., 2003. Monotony of Road Environment and Driver Fatigue: A Simulator Study. Accident Analysis and Prevention, Volume 35, pp. 381–391

Williamson, A., Lombardi, D.A., Folkard, S., Stutts, J., Courtney, T.K., Connor, J.L., 2011. The Link between Fatigue and Safety. Accident Analysis and Prevention, Volume 43, pp. 498–515