Vol 7, No 6 (2016) > Metalurgy and Material Engineering >

Exploring the Effect of Particle Concentration and Irradiation Time in the Synthesis of Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) Ba(1-X)SrxTiO3 (X:0-1) Nanoparticles by High Power Ultrasonic Irradiation

Erlina Yustanti, Mas Ayu Elita Hafizah, Azwar Manaf


Abstract: Barium strontium titanate (BST) or Ba1-xSrxTiO3
with x=0-1 possesses superior dielectric properties, which are widely used in
many applications like in communication technology, electronic
instrumentations, and various electrical devices. In this paper, the characterization of the particle and
crystallite size of Ba1-xSrxTiO3
(x: 0; 0.3; 0.7) is described. A two-step refinement commenced: first by mechanical milling, and then a
further refinement under ultrasonic irradiation in a high power sonicator was
applied to Ba1-xSrxTiO3
(x: 0; 0.3; 0.7) particles. The crystalline powders were obtained through mechanically alloyed standard research grade BaCO3, TiO2,
and SrCO3
precursors in a planetary ball mill.The powders were first found heavily
deformed after 60 hours of milling and then went through a sintering process at
1200°C for 4 hours to form multicrystallite particles. The presence of a single
phase in the three samples was solidly confirmed in their respective X-ray
diffraction (XRD) patterns. The changes of multicrystallite particles into
monocrystallite particles were obtained only after crystalline powders were
irradiated ultrasonically in a high power sonicator. The processing variable
during ultrasonic irradiation was limited to the duration time of irradiation
and particle concentration in the exposed media. It is shown that the average sizes of BST particles
at x=0; 0.3; 0.7 before ultrasonic irradiation
were 353, 348, and 385 nm,
respectively. These respective sizes decreased drastically to 52, 35, and 49 nm,
respectively, after 12 hours of ultrasonic irradiation. These particle sizes
are almost identical with that of their crystallite size. Hence, the synthesis
of monocrystallite particles has been achieved. As the particle concentration
of media takes effect, it is shown that an exposed media with a higher particle
concentration tends to form multicrystallite particles.
Keywords: Barium strontium titanate; Mechanical alloying; Nanoparticle; Particle size; Ultrasonic irradiation

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