Vol 8, No 1 (2017) > Mechanical Engineering >

Characteristic of LPG Compositions in the Fuel Line during Discharging Process

Muji Setiyo, Sudito Soeparman, Nurkholis Hamidi, Slamet Wahyudi



Research and development
activities on Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) vehicles have increased LPG engine
performance to that of gasoline engines. LPG evaporation in the fuel
system also has a potential cooling effect that can be taken advantage of. The results
from previous studies, however, do not explain the level of fuel in the tank at the time of data
collection. LPG is a mixture of several molecules which have different
properties. This paper presents an investigation of LPG composition
characteristics in the fuel line during the discharging process. Samples were
taken periodically on the fuel line by special gas syringes. Afterwards, the
samples were injected into the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)
device. This series of tests, which was conducted on lengthy LPG
tanks, showed that
the propane and butane 2-methyl molecules are unevenly dispersed during the discharging of the
tank. However, this study found that a change in LPG composition during the discharging process does not have
significant influence on the energy delivery and the potential cooling effect.

Keywords: Cooling effect; Discharging process; Energy content; LPG composition

Full PDF Download


Adolf, J., Balzer, C., Joedicke, A., Schabla, U., 2015. Shell LPG Study. Shell Deutschland, Hamburg

AES., 2012. Technical Data for Propane, Butane, and LPG Mixtures. Peachtree City

Bosch, R., 2010. LPG Spark Plugs. Road Clayton

BP International Gas Union, 2011. Guidebook to Gas Interchangeability and Gas Quality. Oslo

Campbell, M., Wyszyński, Ł.P., Stone, R., 2004. Combustion of LPG in a Spark-ignition Engine. SAE Technical Paper. 2004-01–09

Ceviz, M.A., Yüksel, F., 2006. Cyclic Variations on LPG and Gasoline-fuelled Lean Burn SI Engine. Renewable Energy, Volume 31, pp. 1950–1960

Damirel, Y., 2012. Energy - Production, Conversion, Storage, Conservation, and Coupling. London: Springer-Verlag

El-Morsi, M., 2015. Energy and Exergy Analysis of LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) as a Drop in Replacement for R134a in Domestic Refrigerators. Energy, Volume 86, pp. 344–353

Elnajjar, E., Hamdan, M.O., Selim, M.Y.E., 2013a. Experimental Investigation of Dual Engine Performance using Variable LPG Composition Fuel. Renewable Energy, Volume 56, pp. 110–116

Elnajjar, E., Selim, M.Y.E., Hamdan, M.O., 2013b. Experimental Study of Dual Fuel Engine Performance using Variable LPG Composition and Engine Parameters. Energy Conversion and Management, Volume 76, pp. 32–42

Erkus, B., Surmen, A., Karamangil, M.I., Kaplan, C., 2012. The Effect of Ignition Timing on Performance of LPG Injected SI Engine. Energy, Education, Science and Technology, Volume 28(2), pp. 1199–1206

European Committee for Standardization, 2008. CEN - EN 589 - Automotive fuels - LPG - Requirements and Test Methods. Engineering 360, p. 20. Available online at http://standards.globalspec.com/std/1517884/cen-en-589

Ghariya, V.J., Gosai, D.C., Gajjar, S.R., 2013. Thermodynamically Evolution of LPG Refrigerator : A Literature Review. International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology, Volume 2(12), pp. 2868–2875

Gumus, M., 2011. Effects of Volumetric Efficiency on the Performance and Emissions Characteristics of a Dual Fueled (Gasoline and LPG) Spark Ignition Engine. Fuel Processing Technology, Volume 92(10), pp. 1862–1867

Lawankar, S.M., 2012. Comparative Study of Performance of LPG Fuelled Si Engine at Different Compression Ratio and Ignition Timing. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology, Volume 3(4), pp. 337–343

Masi, M., Gobbato, P., 2012. Measure of the Volumetric Efficiency and Evaporator Device Performance for a Liquefied Petroleum Gas Spark Ignition Engine. Energy Conversion and Management, Volume 60, pp. 18–27

Md. Ehsan., 2006. Effect of Spark Advance on a Gas Run Automotive Spark Ignition Engine. Journal of Chemical Engineering, Volume 24(1), pp. 42–49

Messagie, M., Lebeau, K., Coosemans, T., Macharis, C., van Mierlo, J., 2013. Environmental and Financial Evaluation of Passenger Vehicle Technologies in Belgium. Sustainability, Volume 5(12), pp. 5020–5033

Mhaske, M.S., Deshmukh, T.S., Ankush, D.D., Palkar, S.M., Gaikwad, V.S., 2016. Performance Evolution of Domestic Refrigerator Using LPG Cylinder. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, Volume 3(4), pp. 2586–2592

Mohan, M., 2013. Zero Cost Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Using LPG. Chennai: Tech Briefs

Murillo, S., Miguez, J.L., Porteiro, J., González, L.M.L., Granada, E., Morán, J.C., 2005. LPG: Pollutant Emission and Performance Enhancement for Spark-ignition Four Strokes Outboard Engines. Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 25(13), pp. 1882–1893

Nikam, S.D., Dargude, S.B., Dhanagar, V.L., Patharwat, A.A., Khandare, R.S., Bhane, A.B., 2015. Electricity Free Refrigeration System using Domestic LPG Design of Energy Saving Refrigerator. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, Volume 5(3), pp. 456–460

NREL, 1994. Technical Evaluation and Assessment of CNG/LPG Bi-Fuel and Flex-Fuel Vehicle Viability. Corolado

Price, P., Guo, S., Hirschmann, M., 2004. Performance of an Evaporator for a LPG Powered Vehicle. Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 24(8–9), pp. 1179–1194

Saleh, H.E., 2008. Effect of Variation in LPG Composition on Emissions and Performance in a Dual Fuel Diesel Engine. Fuel, Volume 87(13–14), pp. 3031–3039

Saraf, R.R., Thipse, S.S., Saxena, P.K., 2009. Comparative Emission Analysis of Gasoline/ LPG Automotive Bifuel Engine. International Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Volume 1(4), pp. 199–202

Setiyo, M., Soeparman, S., Hamidi, N., Wahyudi, S., 2016a. Techno-economic Analysis of Liquid Petroleum Gas Fueled Vehicles as Public Transportation in Indonesia. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Volume 6(3), pp. 495–500

Setiyo, M., Soeparman, S., Wahyudi, S., Hamidi, N., 2016b. A Simulation for Predicting Potential Cooling Effect on LPG-fuelled Vehicles. In: AIP Conference Proceedings. American Institute of Physics, Volume 1717(1), pp. 030002-1–030002-8

Setiyo, M., Waluyo, B., Anggono, W., Husni, M., 2016c. Performance of Gasoline/LPG Bi-fuel Engine of Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor (MAPS) Variations Feedback. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Volume 11(7), pp. 4707–4712

Shah, I.H., Gupta, K., 2014. Design of LPG Refrigeration System and Comparative Energy Analysis with Domestic Refrigerator. International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Research Technology, Volume 3(7), pp. 206–213

The Engineering Toolbox, Propane Butane Mixtures - Evaporation Pressures. Available online at http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/propane-butane-mix-d_1043.html

Watson, H.C., Phuong, P.X., 2007. Why Liquid Phase LPG Port Injection has Superior Power and Efficiency to Gas Phase Port Injection. SAE Technical Paper. 2007-01–35

Werpy, M.R., Burnham, A., Bertram, K., 2010. Propane Vehicles: Status, Challenges, and Opportunities. Argonne

World LPG Association, 2015. Autogas Incentive Policies, 2015 Update, Neuilly-sur-Seine

Younglove, B.A., Ely, J.F., 1987. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids. II. Methane, Ethane, Propane, Isobutane, and Normal Butane. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, Volume 16(4), pp. 577–798

Zainal, B.Z., Mustafa, A., Hanapi, M., 2006. Heat and Mass Transfer Studies in Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Operations. Johor Bahru: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia