Vol 7, No 6 (2016) > Metalurgy and Material Engineering >

Effect of Alkaline Treatment on the Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber-reinforced Polypropylene Composite

Warman Fatra, Helena Rouhillahi, Zuchra Helwani, Zulfansyah Zulfansyah, Jecky Asmura

 

Abstract: Oil palm empty fruit
bunch (OPEFB) is one of the waste products of oil palm plantations and
has not been optimally used in Riau Province, Sumatera, Indonesia.
OPEFB is reduced by incineration, which causes pollution problems. However, the combustion of OPEFB generates ash, which is rich in potassium.
Moreover, OPEFB fiber has good strength, low cost, low
density, and biodegradability, and it can be
used as composite reinforcement. However, the natural fibers in composites have poor
compatibility with the matrix
and relatively high moisture
absorption. Hydrolysis of OPEFB ash creates a base solution
that can be utilized in an alkaline treatment process to increase the
mechanical properties of natural composites. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various extracts of OPEFB ash on
the tensile strength, flexural strength, and
water absorption of an OPEFB
fiber-polypropylene composite. The experimental
design used was the Response Surface Method-Central Composite Design (RSM-CCD).
The results showed that the tensile strength increased with an increase
of fiber length and concentration of the
OPEFB ash extract solution, but tensile strength decreased with a longer
soaking time. Flexural
strength increased with an increase in fiber length
but decreased with an increase in the concentration
of the OPEFB ash extract solution and longer soaking time. Water absorption increased with lower and higher concentrations of OPEFB ash extract solution and
fiber length and with shorter and longer soaking times. The highest
tensile strength (20.100 MPa) was achieved at 5%wt alkaline concentration, 36 h
soaking time, and 3 cm fiber length. The highest flexural strength (30.216
MPa) was achieved at 5%wt alkaline concentration, 12
h soaking time, and 3 cm fiber length. The lowest water absorption
(0.324%) was achieved at 10%wt alkaline concentration, 24 h soaking time, and 2
cm fiber length.
Keywords: Alkaline treatment; Flexural strength; Oil palm empty fruit bunch; Tensile strength; Water absorption

Full PDF Download

References


Abu Bakar, A., Hassan, A., Mohd Yusof, A.F., 2005. Effect of Accelerated Weathering on the Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Filled UPVC Composites. Iranian Polymer Journal, Volume 14(7), pp. 627–635

Agrawal, R., Saxena, N.S., Sharma, K.B., Thomas, S., Sreekala, M.S., 2000. Activation Energy and Crystallization Kinetics of Untreated and Treated Oil Palm Fibre Reinforced Phenol Formaldehyde Composites. Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 277(1-2), pp. 77–82

Akil, H.M., Omar, M.F., Mazuki, A.A.M., Safiee, S., Ishak, Z.A.M., Abu Bakar, A., 2011. Kenaf Fiber Reinforced Composites: A Review. Material and Design, Volume 32(8-9), pp. 4107–4121

Anggraini, D., Roliadi, H., 2011. Manufacture of Pulp from Empty Oil-palm Fruit Bunches for Paperboard at Small-scale Endeavor. Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan, Volume 29(3), pp. 211–225

Ayrilmis, N., Jarusombuti, S., Fueangvivat, V., Bauchongkol, P., White, R.H., 2011. Coir Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Composite Panel for Automotive Interior Applications. Fiber and Polymer, Volume 12(7), pp. 919–926

Directorate General of Estate Crops., 2014. Tree Crop Estate Statistics of Indonesia 2013-2015, Palm Oil

Fatra, W., Sanjaya, R., Zulfansyah, Helwani, Z., 2015. Alkaline Treatment of Oil Palm Fibers by Using Extract of Oil Palm EFB Ash for Better Adhesion Toward Polymeric Matrix. Journal of Engineering and Technology Sciences, Volume 47(5), pp 498–507

Jawaid, M., Alothman, O.Y., Paridah, M.T., Abdul Khalil, H.P.S., 2014. Effect of Oil Palm and Jute Fiber Treatment on Mechanical Performance of Epoxy Hybrid Composites. International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characterization, Volume 19(1), pp. 62–69

Karina, M., Onggo, H., Abdullah, A.H.D., Syampurwadi, A., 2008. Effect of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Fiber Glass Reinforced Polyester Resin. Journal of Biological Sciences, Volume 8(1), pp. 101–106

Khalid, M., Ratnam, C.T., Chuah, T.G., Ali, S., Choong, T.S.Y., 2008. Comparative Study of Polypropylene Composites Reinforced with Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber and Oil Palm Derived Cellulose. Materials and Design, Volume 29(1), pp. 173–178

Leao, A.L., Souza, S.F., Cherian, B.M., Frollini, E., Thomas, S., Pothan, L.A., Kottaisamy, M., 2010. Pineapple Leaf Fibers for Composites and Cellulose. Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals, Volume 522(1), pp. 36/[336]–41/[341]

Li, X., Tabil, L.G., Panigrahi, S., 2007. Chemical Treatments of Natural Fiber for Use in Natural Fiber-reinforced Composites: A Review. Journal of Polymers and the Environment, Volume 15(1), pp. 25–33

Mishra, S., Mohanty, A.K., Drzal, L.T., Misra, M., Parija, S., Nayak, S.K., Tripathy, S.S., 2003. Studies on Mechanical Performance of Biofibre/Glass Reinforced Polyesterhybrid Composite. Composites Science and Tehnology, Volume 63(10), pp. 1377–1385

Montgomery, Douglas C., 1991. Design and Analysis of Experiments 3rd Edition. Canada: John Wiley & Sons

Moshiul Alam, A.K.M., Beg, M.D.H., Reddy Prasad, D.M., Khan, M.R., Mina, M.F., 2012. Structures and Performances of Simultaneous Ultrasound and Alkali Treated Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Reinforced Poly(lactic acid) Composites. Composites: Part A, Volume 43(11), pp. 1921–1929

Pracella, M., Minhaz-Ul Haque, M., Alvarez, V., 2010. Functionalization, Compatibilization and Properties of Polyolefin Composites with Natural Fiber. Polymers, Volume 2(4), pp. 554–574

Razak, N.W.A., Kalam, A., 2012. Effect of OPEFB Size on the Mechanical Properties and Water Absorption Behaviour of OPEFB/PPnanoclay/PP Hybrid Composites. Procedia Engineering, Volume 41, pp. 1593–1599

Sreekala, M.S., Kumaran, M.G., Joseph, S., Jacob, M., Thomas, S., 2000. Oil Palm Fibre Reinforced Phenol Formaldehyde Composites: Influence of Fibre Surface Modifications on the Mechanical Performance. Applied Composite Materials, Volume 7(5), pp. 295–329

Sreekala, M.S., Kumaran, M.G., Thomas., S., 2002. Water Sorption in Oil Palm Fiber Reinforched Phenol Formaldehyde Composites. Composites: Part A, Volume 33(6), pp. 763–777

Sreekala, M.S., Thomas, S., 2003. Effect of Fibre Surface Modification on Water-sorption Characteristics of Oil Palm Fibres. Composite Science and Technology, Volume 63(6), pp. 861–869

Srinivasa, C.V., Bharath, K.N., 2012. Water Absorption Behaviour of Areca Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites. International Journal of Materials and Biomaterials Application, Volume 2(2), pp. 12–14

Taiwo, O.E, Osinowo, F.A.O., 2001. Evaluation of Various Agro-waste for Traditional Soap Production. Bioresource Technology, Volume 79(1), pp. 95–97

Ton-That, M.T., Denault, J., 2007. Development of Composites Based on Natural Fibers. National Research Council, Industrial Materials Institute, The Institute of Textile Science. Ottawa, Canada. April 13, 2007

Wang, B., Panigrahi, S., Tabil, L., Crerar, W., 2007. Pre-treatment of Flax Fibres for Use in Rotationally Molded Biocomposites. Journal of Reinforced Plastics Composites, Volume 26(5), pp. 447–463

Yusoff, M.Z.M, Sapuan, M.S.M., Ismail, N., Wirawan, R., 2010. Mechanical Properties of Short Random Oil Palm Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composites. Sains Malaysiana, Volume 39(1), pp. 87–92

Zakaria, S., Poh, L.K., 2002. Polystyrene-Benzoylated EFB Reinforced Composites. Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, Volume 41(5), pp. 951–962