Vol 7, No 5 (2016) > Civil Engineering >

Shear Resistance of Rubber-ballast Composites in Simulated Water and Acid Soaked Conditions

Siti Farhanah SM Johan, Chee-Ming Chan

 

Abstract: Ballast is one of the
main structures for the railway tracks. It can resist the lateral movement
under dynamic loading transferred by the passing trains with repeatedly. Under
some circumstances, ballast can suffer degradation or breakdown due to the
repeated loading and maintenance. Ballast is easily exposed to the weather
because it is laid on the track. Acid rain affects the performance of the
railway track near the industrial and urban
area. As a result, it starts to foul and the small chips from ballast filled
the void, as well as reduce the shear strength of ballast particles. This
situation can contribute into the increasing of maintenance frequency and
costing. This paper examines the potential of rubber inclusions in increasing
the shear resistance of rubber-ballast composites in simulated water and acid soaked
conditions with several configuration. This lab-based exploratory work is only static load simulation in conventional shear box
setup measuring 60 mm × 60 mm.
The aggregates size is 10 times smaller than actual size of ballast. In order
to identify the shear resistance deterioration of rubber-aggregates mixture
under poor drainage conditions by soaked a batch of aggregates in water and
acid solution for 2 weeks to simulate accelerated weathering effects. The shear
resistance did not rise dramatically with the rubber reinforcement. This
susceptible shear strain plots indicate ductile behaviour on the
aggregates-rubber composites. This is evident by the linear rise of shear
stress with strain up to approximately 10% for the control samples (CS) until
it reaches a constant value. Note that all the specimens including CS are in a
loose state during the testing because there were no tamping been applied on
the samples. Overall the circular patch (CP) specimen was the most favourable
than the other configurations. Both mechanisms contributed to the reduced
overall subsistence, accompanied by an increase in the shear resistance. The
inclusion of rubber elements apparently prevented the dilation of the granular
material when approaching the shear failure and the reducing the settlement.
Keywords: Acid hydrochloric; Ballast; Railway tracks; Rubber; Shear box

Full PDF Download

References


Ashadi, H.W., Aprilando, B.A., Astutiningsih, S., 2015. Effect of Steel Slag Substitution in Geopolymer Concrete on Compressive Strength and Corrosion Rate of Steel Reinforcement in Seawater and an Acid Rain Environmental. International Journal of Technology, Volume 6(2), pp. 227-235

Bonnett, C.F., 2005. Practical Railway Engineering, 2nd Edition, Published by Imperial College Press

British Standards Institution, 1990. Methods of Tests for Soils for Civil

Engineering Purposes, Part 7, BSI, London

Edincliler, A., Baykal, G., Saygili, A., 2010. Influence of Different Processing Techniques on Mechanical Properties of Used Tires in Embankment Construction. Waste Management, Volume 30, pp. 1073-1080

Indraratna, B., Ngo, N.T., Rujikiatkamjorn, C., Vinod, J.S., 2014. Behaviour of Fresh and Fouled Railway Ballast Subjected to Direct Shear Testing: Discrete Element Simulation. International Journal of Geomechanics, Volume 14, pp 34-44

Khabbaz, H., Indraratna, B., 2009. Development of a Smart Tool for Capturing Novel Advancement in Ballasted Rail Track Substructure. In: 8th International Congress on Civil Engineering

Kim, D., Ha, S. 2014. Effects of Particle Size on the Shear Behavior of Coarse Grained Soils Reinforced with Geogrid. Materials, Volume 7(2), pp. 963-979

Nordberg, G.F., Goyer, R.A., Clarkson, T.W., 1985. Impact of Effects of Acid Precipitation on Toxidity Metals. Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 63, pp. 169-180

Raymond, G.P., Gaskin, P.N., Svec, O., 1975. Selection and Performance of Railroad Ballast. In: Ker (ed): Railroad Track Mechanics and Technology, Proceedings of a symposium held at Princeton University, pp. 369-385

Selig, E.T., Waters, J.M., 1994. Track Geotechnology and Substructure Management. Thomas Telford, London

Shenton, M.J., 1975. Deformation of Railway Ballast under Repeated Loading Conditions. In: Railroad Track Mechanics and Technology, Proceedings of a symposium held at Princeton University, pp.387-404

Spengler, J.D., Brauer, M., Koutrakis, P., 1990. Acid, Air and Health. Environmental Science and Technology, Volume 24(7), pp. 946-956

Xiao, M., Ledezma, M., Hartman, C., 2013. Shear Resistance of Tire-derived Aggregates using Large-scale Direct Shear Tests. J. Mater. Civ. Eng., Volume 27(1), pp. 1-8

Zornberg, J.G., Cabral, A.R., Viratjandr, C., 2004. Behaviour of Tire Shred – Sand Mixtures. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Volume 41(2), pp. 227-241