Vol 7, No 6 (2016) > Mechanical Engineering >

The Effect of Temperature Increase, Holding Time and Number of Layers on Ceramic Shells using the Investment Casting Process

Tresna Priyana Soemardi, Agri Suwandi, Gandjar Kiswanto, Widjajalaksmi Kusumaningsih


Abstract: This study aimed to
determine the effect of using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene in place of
conventional wax material on treatment pattern removal in the investment
casting process.  There are three
controllable process variables that can affect treatment pattern removal, which
include temperature increase, holding time and the number of layers of ceramic
shell that have been considered for comparison. Comparison among the effects of
temperature increase, holding time and numbers of ceramic shell layers on the
ceramic shell was analyzed using ANOVA. It was found that temperature increase
(Tx), holding time (t) and number of layers of ceramic shell
(N) contribute significantly to the
length of the crack (l) on the
ceramic shell. The crack in the ceramic shell’s surface was analyzed using
scanning electron microscope photos. Less layers number cause the increase of
crack length. The combination between temperature upraise and longer holding
time cause cracking delay. The experimental is conducted by using 3 (three)
variants for each of layers number, temperature and holding time. The layers
number is ranging between 7-9 layers. Temperature increase from room
temperature until 1300oC. The layers number variant is ranging
between 180-300 seconds. It was concluded that a longer holding time will
result in a more intact ceramic shell, as longer holding
times yield short crack lengths.
Keywords: Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene; Ceramic shell; Holding time; Number of layers; Temperature increase

Full PDF Download


Chua, C.K., Leong, K.F., Lim, C.S., 2003. Rapid Prototyping: Principles and Applications. 2 ed.,World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., Singapore

Cooper, K.G., 2001. Rapid Prototyping Technology: Selection and Application. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York

Faes, M., Ferraris, E., Moens, D., 2016. Influence of Inter-layers Cooling Time on the Quasi-static Properties of ABS Components Produced via Fused Deposition Modelling. Procedia CIRP, Volume 42, pp. 748–753

Feng, J., Carpanese, C., Fina, A., 2016. Thermal Decomposition Investigation of ABS Containing Lewis-acid Type Metal Salts. Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 129, pp. 319–327

Foggia, M.D., D’Addona, D., 2013. Identification of Critical Key Parameters and their Impact to Zero-defect Manufacturing in the Investment Casting Process. Procedia CIRP, Volume 12, pp. 264–269

Gebelin, J.C., Jolly, M.R., 2003. Modelling of the Investment Casting Process. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume 135(2-3), pp. 291–300

Groover, M.P., 2010. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing: Materials, Processes, and Systems. 4th ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., USA

Jafari, H., Idris, M.H., Ourdjini, A., 2014. An Alternative Approach in Ceramic Shell Investment Casting of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy: In Situ Melting Technique. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume 214(4), pp. 988–997

Kalpakjian, S., Schmid, S., 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, fifth ed., Pearson Education Incorporation, New York

Lee, C.W., Chua, C.K., Cheah, C.M., Tan, L.H., Feng, C., 2004. Rapid Investment Casting: Direct and Indirect Approaches via Fused Deposition Modelling. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Volume 23(1), pp. 93–101

Mountgomery, D.C., 2013. Design and Analysis of Experiments. 8th ed., John Wiley & Sons Inc., Arizona

Pattnaik, S., Karunakar, D.B., Jha, P.K., 2012. Developments in Investment Casting Process—A Review. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume 212(11), pp. 2332–2348

Singh, R., Singh, S., Fraternali, F., 2016. Development of In-house Composite Wire Based Feed Stock Filaments of Fused Deposition Modelling for Wear-resistant Materials and Structures. Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 98, pp. 244–249

Singh, S., Singh, R., 2015. Wear Modelling of Al-Al2O3 Functionally Graded Material Prepared by FDM Assisted Investment Castings using Dimensionless Analysis. Journal of Manufacturing Processes, Volume 20(3), pp. 507–514

Soemardi, T.P., Suwandi, A., Kiswanto, G., Kusumaningsih, W., 2016. Development of Pattern Smelting Method with ABS Material in Investment Casting Process. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Volume 11(16), pp. 10023–10027

Sopcak, J.E., 1986. Handbook of Lost Wax or Investment Casting. Gem Guides Book Co., California.

Stratasys, 2014. Fdm-technology: Stratasys Ltd., Available online at: http://www.stratasys.com/ Accessed on 14 November 2014

Suwandi, A., Kiswanto, G., Kusumaningsih, W., Soemardi, T.P., 2014. Research–Design & Development of Fast Customized Manufacturing for Prostheses TKR Based on Rapid Prototyping. Advanced Materials Research, Volume 980, pp. 243–247

Wang, S., Miranda, A.G., Shih, C., 2010. A Study of Investment Casting with Plastic Patterns. Materials and Manufacturing Processes, Volume 25(12), pp. 1482–1488

Yarlagadda, P.K.D.V., Hock, T. S., 2003. Statistical Analysis on Accuracy of Wax Patterns Used in Investment Casting process. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume 138(1-3), pp. 75–81

Yongnian, Y., Shengjie, L., Renji, Z., Feng, L., Rendong, W., Qingping, L., Zhuo, X., Xiaohong, W., 2009. Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing Technology: Principle, Representative Technics, Applications, and Development Trends. Tsinghua Science and Technology, Volume 14(1), pp. 1–12