Vol 8, No 1 (2017) > Metalurgy and Material Engineering >

Preparation and Characterization of Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 Composite for Methylene Blue Removal in Water

Adel Fisli, Ridwan Ridwan, Yuni K. Krisnandi, Jarnuzi Gunlazuardi

 

Abstract: The
main problem with the slurry process is the difficulty in recovering the
photocatalyst nanoparticle from water following purification. An alternative
solution proposed the photocatalyst be immobilized on magnetic carriers, which
would allow them to be recollected from the water suspension following
treatment using an external magnetic field. Magnetically photocatalyst
composites were prepared using simple heteroagglomeration by applying
attractive electrostatic forces between the nanoparticles with an opposite
surface charge. The Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2
photocatalysts were synthesized in an aqueous slurry solution containing Fe3O4/SiO2
and TiO2 nanoparticles under pH 5 conditions. Meanwhile, Fe3O4/SiO2
was prepared by a simple procedure via a coprecipitation of iron(II) and
iron(III) ion mixtures in ammonium hydroxide and was leached by sodium
silicate. The synthesized samples were investigated to determine the phase structure, the
magnetic properties, and the morphology of the composites by X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating
sample magnetometer (VSM), and transmission
electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The results indicated that the composites contained anatase and rutile phases and exhibited a superparamagnetic behavior. Fe3O4/SiO2
particles, which were of the aggregation spherical form at 20 nm in size, were
successfully attached onto the TiO2 surface. The catalytic activity of Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2
composites was evaluated for the degradation of methylene blue under
ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The presence of SiO2 as a barrier
between Fe3O4 and TiO2 is not only improves
the photocatalytic properties but also provides the ability to adsorb the
properties on the composite. The Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2
(50% containing TiO2 in composite) were able to eliminate 87.3% of
methylene blue in water through the adsorption and photocatalytic processes.
This result is slightly below pure TiO2, which is able to degrade
96% of methylene blue. The resulting Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 composite
exhibited an excellent ability to remove dye from water and it is easily
recollected using a magnetic bar from the water. Therefore, they have high
potency as an efficient and simple implementation for the dye effluent
decolorization of textile waste in slurry reactor processes.
Keywords: Composites; Magnetic photocatalysts; Methylene blue

Full PDF Download

References


Alvarez, P.M., Jaramillo, J., Lopez-Pinero, F., Plucinski, P.K., 2010. Preparation and Characterization of Magnetic TiO2 Nanoparticles and their Utilization for the Degradation of Emerging Pollutants in Water. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 100, pp. 338–345

Bhongsuwan, T., Bhongsuwan, D., Chomchoey, N., Boonchuay, L., 2013. Effect of Calcination Temperature in Production of Magnetic Nanoparticles for Arsenic Adsorption. In: Paper ID 91 on the 11th International Conference on Mining, Materials and Petroleum Engineering, ASEAN Forum on Clean Coal Technology, Chiang Mai, Thailand

Calderon, S., Cavaleiro, A., Carvalho, S., 2015. Chemical and Structural Characterization of Zr-C-N-Ag Coatings: XPS, XRD and Raman Spectroscopy. Applied Surface Science, Volume 346, pp. 240–247

Emadi, M., Shams, E., Amini, M.K., 2013. Removal of Zinc from Aqueous Solution by Magnetite Silica Core-shell Nanoparticles. Journal of Chemistry, Volume 2013, pp. 1–10

Fisli, A., Saridewi, R., Dewi, S.H., Gunlazuardi. J., 2013. Preparation and Characterization of Fe3O4/TiO2 Composites by Heteroagglomeration. Advanced Materials Research, Volume 626, pp. 131–137

Fisli, A., Yusuf, S., Ridwan, Krisnandi, Y.K., Gunlazuardi, J., 2014. Preparation and Characterization of Magnetite-silica Nano-composite as Adsorbents for Removal of Methylene Blue Dyes from Environmental Water Samples. Advanced Materials Research, Volume 896, pp. 525–531

Hanaor, D.A.H., Chironi, I., Karatchevtseva, I., Triani, G., Sorrell, C., 2012. Single-and Mixed-phase TiO2 Powders Preparation by Excess-hydrolysis of a Titanium Alkoxide. Advances in Applied Ceramic, Volume 111, pp. 149–158

He, Q., Zhang, Z., Xiong, J., Xiong, Y., Xiao, H., 2008. A Novel Biomaterial-Fe3O4:TiO2 Core-shell Nano Particle with Magnetic Performance and High Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity. Optical Material, Volume 31, pp. 380–384

Islam, A.M., Chowdhry, B.Z., Snowden, M.J., 1995. Heteroaggregation in Colloidal Dispersions. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, Volume 62, pp. 109–136

Jiang, W., Zhang, X., Gong, X., Yan, F., Zhang, Z., 2010. Sonochemical Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetic Separable Fe3O4–TiO2 Nanocomposites and their Catalytic Properties. International Journal Smart and Nano Materials, Volume 1, pp. 278–287

Makovec, D., Sajko, M., Selisnik, A., Drofenik, M., 2011. Magnetically Recoverable Photocatalytic Nanocomposite Particles for Water Treatment. Materials Chemistry and Physics, Volume 129, pp. 83–89

Polshettiwar, V., Luque, R., Fihri, A., Zhu, H., Bouhrara, M., Basset, J.M., 2011. Magnetically Recoverable Nanocatalysts. Chemical Review, Volume 111, pp. 3036–3075

Suttiponparnit, K., Jiang, J., Sahu, M., Suvachittanont, S., Charinpanitkul, T., Biswas, P., 2011. Role of Surface Area, Primary Particle Size, and Crystal Phase on Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Dispersion Properties. Nanoscale Research Letters, Volume 6(27), pp. 1–8

Tyrpekl, V., Vejpravova, J.P., Roca, A.G., Murafa, N., Szatmary, L., Nizˇnˇansky´, D., 2011. Magnetically Separable Photocatalytic Composite -Fe2O3@TiO2 Synthesized by Heterogeneous Precipitation. Applied Surface Science, Volume 257, pp. 4844–4848

Winataputra, D.S., Dewi, S.H., Wardiyati, S., Fisli, A., 2015. The Photocatalytic Activity of Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 Composite by Mechanochemical Preparation. Jurnal Sains Materi Indonesia, Volume 16(2), pp. 54–58

Wang, R., Wang, X., Xi, X., Hu, R., Jiang, G., 2012. Preparation and Photocatalytic Activity of Magnetic Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 Composites. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 2012, pp. 1–8

Zhuravlev, L.T., 2000. Aspects, the Surface Chemistry of Amorphous Silica. Zhuravlev Model. Colloids and surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Volume 173, pp. 1–38