Vol 7, No 3 (2016) > Metalurgy and Material Engineering >

Water Absorption and Desorption Behaviour and their Effect on the Tensile Properties of FM 73M Adhesive Film

Sugiman Sugiman, Sulardjaka Sulardjaka

 

Abstract:

Structural
adhesives have been widely used to join metal to metal, and metal to composite
in automotive and aircraft structures. However, the adhesive is susceptible to
water absorption from the surrounding
environment and this affects the mechanical properties of the adhesive, leading to reduction in the performance of the structure. This paper investigated the water
absorption and desorption behaviour of FM 73M structural adhesive film and its
effect on the tensile properties. The adhesive was immersed in deionised water
at a temperature of 50oC. A gravimetric method was carried out to
obtain the water uptake. Dog bone specimens were used to investigate the
residual tensile strength of the adhesive. Finite element modelling was
performed to model the spatial moisture distribution in the adhesive and the
residual tensile strength after having absorbed water. It was
found that the water absorption of FM 73M deviated from Fick's second law,
however the desorption behaviour followed Fick's second law. The tensile
properties of the adhesive (the tensile strength and the elastic
modulus) tend to decrease with the increase of water content and they are
recovered after desorption at the same temperature as the absorption. The
residual tensile strength was predicted using a continuum damage approach
combined with environmental degradation. Good agreement has been found
between the predicted and the experimental results.

Keywords: Adhesive; Finite element modelling; Tensile properties; Water absorption

Full PDF Download

References


ABAQUS, 2009. User manual, version 6.9.1, Habbit, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc., USA

Ameli, A., Datla, N.V., Papini, M., Spelt, J.K., 2011. Hygrothermal Properties of Highly Toughened Epoxy Adhesives. Journal of Adhesion, Volume 86, pp. 698–725

Butkus, L.M., Mathern, P.D., Johnson, W.S., 1998. Tensile Properties and Plane Stress Fracture Toughness of Thin Film Aerospace Adhesives. Journal of Adhesion, Volume 66, pp. 251–273

Carter, H.G., Kibler, K.G., 1978. Langmuir Type Model for Anomalous Moisture Diffusion in Composite Resins. Journal of Composite Materials, Volume 12, pp. 118–131

Crank, J., 1975. The Mathematics of Diffusion, 2nd edition. Oxford University Press, London

Cytec Engineered Materials, 1998. FM® 73 Toughened Epoxy Film, Technical Service, 1300 Revolution Street. Havre de Grace, Maryland

Han, X., Crocombe, A.D., Anwar, S.N.R., Hu, P., 2014. The Strength Prediction of Adhesive Single Lap Joints Exposed to Long Term Loading in a Hostile Environment. International Journal of Adhesion & Adhesives, Volume 55, pp. 1–11

Jiang, X., Kolstein, H., Bijlaard, F., Qiang, X., 2014. Effects of Hygrothermal Aging on Glass-fibre Reinforced Polymer Laminates and Adhesive of FRP Composite Bridge: Moisture Diffusion Characteristics. Composites: Part A,

Volume 57, pp. 49–58

Lettieri, M., Frigione, M., 2012. Effects of Humid Environment on Thermal and Mechanical Properties of a Cold-curing Structural Epoxy Adhesive. Construction and Building Materials, Volume 30, pp. 753–760

Loh, W.K., Crocombe, A.D., Wahab, M.M.A., Ashcroft, I.A., 2005. Modelling Anomalous Moisture Uptake, Swelling and Thermal Characteristics of a Rubber Toughened Epoxy Adhesive. International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, Volume 25, pp. 1–12

Mubashar, A., Aschroft, I.A., Critchlow, G.W., Crocombe, A.D., 2009. Modelling Cyclic Moisture Uptake in an Epoxy Adhesive. The Journal of Adhesion, Volume 85, pp. 711–735

Placette, M.D., Fan, X., Zhao, J.H., Edwards, D., 2012. Dual Stage Modeling of Moisture Absorption and Desorption in Epoxy Mold Compounds. Microelectronics Reliability, Volume 52, pp. 1401–1408

Quino, G., Yagoubi, J., Lubineau, G., 2014. Characterizing the Toughness of an Epoxy Resin after Wet Aging using Compact Tension Specimens with Non-uniform Moisture Content. Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 109, pp. 319–326

Xiao, G.Z., Shanahan, M.E.R., 1997. Water Absorption and Desorption in an Epoxy Resin with Degradation. Journal of Polymer Science: Part B: Polymer Physics, Volume 35, pp. 2659–2670

Zafar, A., Bertocco, F., Schjødt-Thomsen, J., Rauhe, J.C., 2012. Investigation of the Long Term Effects of Moisture on Carbon Fibre and Epoxy Matrix Composites. Composites Science and Technology, Volume 72, pp. 656–666

Zhou, J., Lucas J.P., 1999a, Hygrothermal Effects of Epoxy Resin. Part I: the Nature of Water in Epoxy. Polymer, Volume 40, pp. 5505–5512

Zhou, J., Lucas, J.P., 1999b. Hygrothermal Effects of Epoxy Resin. Part II: Variations of Glass Transition Temperature. Polymer, Volume 40, pp. 5513–5522