Vol 7, No 4 (2016) > Chemical Engineering >

Degradation Characteristics of Vulcanized Natural Rubber by Dimethyl Ether through Filler and Plasticizer Composition Variations

Asep Handaya Saputra, Johan Johan, Tuti Indah Sari, Adi Cifriadi, Dadi R. Maspanger, Setijo Bismo

 

Abstract: Dimethyl ether (DME) is a
type of renewable energy that could replace the use of fossil fuel in
Indonesia. Nevertheless, DME can cause degradation of rubber-based materials. Therefore,
the performance of rubber that has been degraded by DME must be improved. This
research study aims are to determine the degradation characteristics of modified vulcanized natural
rubber in a DME environment. The effect of the filler (carbon black) and plasticizer (minarex-B)
components of vulcanized natural rubber was examined. The vulcanized rubber samples were comprised
of 10, 30, and 60
parts per hundred rubbers (phr) of filler and 0, 10 and 20 phr of plasticizer. The degradation of the mass
and mechanical properties of the rubber were investigated. Degradation
testing was conducted by immersing the samples inside a pressure vessel that was filled with the liquid phase of DME. The results indicate
that the increasing of the filler composition reduces the impact of
degradation, while the increasing of the plasticizer composition has the opposite effect. The plasticizer is needed
to distribute the filler to all parts of the rubber. Consequently, a filler
composition of 30 phr and a plasticizer composition of 10 phr provide a vulcanized
natural rubber with optional protection against the degradation caused by DME. The characteristics of natural rubber, as measured by Fourier
Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy
(FTIR) proved that DME does not damage the structure of the polymer chains, although DME may react with some ingredients in the rubber that have a similar polarity.
Keywords: Degradation; Dimethyl ether; Filler; Natural rubber; Plasticizer

Full PDF Download

References


Abu-Abdeen, M., Elamer, I., 2010. Mechanical and Swelling Properties of Thermoplastic Elastomer Blends. Materials & Design, Volume 31(2), pp. 808–815

Anggarani, R., Wibowo, C.S., Rulianto, D., 2014. Application of Dimethyl Ether as LPG Substitution for Household Stove. Energy Procedia, Volume 47, pp. 227–234

Chandrasekaran, C., 2009. Rubber Seals for Fluid and Hydraulic Systems (1stEd.). Elsevier Inc William Andrew

Ebewele, R.O., 2000. Polymer Science and Technology. New York: CRC Press

Haseeb, ASMA, Jun, T.S., Fazal, M.A., Masjuki, H.H., 2011. Degradation of

Physical Properties of Different Elastomers upon Exposure to Palm Biodiesel. Energy, Volume 36(3), pp. 1814–1819

Ismail, H., Abdul Khalil, H.P.S., 2000. The Effects of Partial Replacement of Oil Palm Wood Flour by Silica and Silane Coupling Agent on Properties of Natural Rubber Compounds. Polymer Testing, Volume 20(1), pp. 33–41

Li, G.B., Zhou, L.B., 2008. Experimental Research on the Resistance of Rubber Materials to Dimethyl Ether. In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Volume222(6), pp. 975–978

Mark, J.E., Erman, B., Roland, C.M., 2013. The Science and Technology of Rubber Fourth Edition. Boston: Academic Press

Mikhailova, G.A., Baburina, V.A., Kalmykova, V.Ya, Deberdeev, R.Ya, Kutyrev, G.A., 2009. KR 08/02/16-Transl. serial no. 15983-Effect of Sorption-inactive Fillers on the Oil and Petrol Resistance of Siloxane Rubbers. International Polymer Science and Technology, Volume 36(4), p. T19

Muniandy, K., Ismail, H., Othman, N., 2012. Effects of Partial Replacement of Rattan Powder by Commercial Fillers on the Properties of Natural Rubber Composites. BioResources, Volume 7(4), pp. 4640–4657

Park, S.H., Lee, C.S., 2014. Applicability of Dimethyl Ether (DME) in a Compression Ignition Engine as an Alternative Fuel. Energy Conversion and Management, Volume 86, pp.848–863

PerMen-ESDM, 2013. Peraturan Menteri Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral Republik Indonesia Jakarta: Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Meneral Available online at: http://peraturan.bkpm.go.id/jdih/lampiran/PermenESDM 29 2013.pdf (in Bahasa)

Semelsberger, T.A., Borup, R.L., Greene, H. L., 2006. Dimethyl Ether (DME) as an Alternative Fuel. Journal of Power Sources, Volume 156(2), pp. 497–511

Simpson, R.B., 2002. Rubber Basics (1st Ed.). United Kingdom: Rapra Technology Limited

Thomas, G., Feng, B., Veeraragavan, A., Cleary, M.J., Drinnan, N., 2014. Emissions from DME Combustion in Diesel Engines and their Implications on Meeting Future Emission Norms: A Review. Fuel Processing Technology, Volume 119, pp. 286–304

Trakarnpruk, W., Porntangjitlikit, S., 2008. Palm Oil Biodiesel Synthesized with Potassium Loaded Calcined Hydrotalcite and Effect of Biodiesel Blend on Elastomer Properties. Renewable Energy, Volume 33(7), pp. 1558–1563

Wood-Adams, P., 2006. Diffusion and Permeability in Polymers. Available online at:

http://users.encs.concordia.ca/~woodadam/GCH6101/Diffusion%20and%20permeability%20in%20polymers.pdf

Wu, N., Zhang, W., Huang, Z., 2008. Impact of Dimethyl Ether on Engine Seal Materials. Frontiers of Energy and Power Engineering in China, Volume 2(3), pp. 279–284