Vol 6, No 5 (2015) > Civil Engineering >

Using ggbs for Partial Cement Replacement in Concrete: Effects of Water-binder Ratio and ggbs Level on Activation Energy

Gidion Turu'allo



Ground granulated blast
furnace slag (ggbs) is a waste material generated from iron production, and is
one of the cementitious materials that can be used to replace part of the
cement in concrete. The aim of this research was to determine the effects of
the water-binder ratios and levels of ggbs in concrete, with regard to the
activation energy, which is needed for predicting the concrete’s strength. A
number of mixtures with different water-binder ratios (ranging from 0.30 to
0.51), ggbs levels, and curing temperatures were cast and tested at 0.5, 1, 2,
4, 8, 16, and 32 days. The activation energies were determined using the
American society for testing and materials (ASTM) standard C1074, and the
Freiesleben Hansen and Pedersen (FHP) method. The results of the experiment
showed that the apparent activation energy was relatively independent of the
water-binder ratio, and mainly affected by the ggbs level in the concrete.
Higher ggbs levels in the concrete resulted in the higher apparent activation
Keywords: Activation energy; Cementitious materials; Curing temperature; ggbs level; Ground granulated blast furnace slag; Water binder ratio

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