Vol 6, No 7 (2015) > Metalurgy and Material Engineering >

Effect of Citric Acid Addition upon the Precipitation Process on the Nanostructural Characteristics of ZnO Nanoparticles

Imam Akbar, Akhmad Herman Yuwono, Nofrijon Sofyan, Ghiska Ramahdita, Amalia Sholehah



Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles have been investigated in depth, due to their potential as a semiconductor material in dye
sensitized solar cell applications. In
this current research, ZnO nanostructure was synthesized using a simple
precipitation technique with the addition
of citric acid (C6H8O7)as the capping agent. Various ratios of ZnO and
citric acid were prepared, i.e. 1:1,
2:1, 4:1 and calcination temperatures of 150 and 400°C were used to investigate
the effect of those parameters on the ZnO nanostructure and its crystallinity. The nanostructure
characteristics, i.e. nanocrystallite
size, crystallinity, and optical properties were determined by using x-ray diffraction (XRD),
scanning electron microscopy (SEM),
and ultra-violet visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, respectively. The investigation results
showed that ZnO nanostructure was formed as spherical shapes and rods in the range of 19.8–30.8 nm with the lowest
band gap energy (Eg) of 3.15
eV obtained under conditions of a 4:1 ratio and calcined at 400°C.
Considering nanostructural characteristics, the ZnO nanostructures in this
study would be suitable for application as a semiconductor oxide layer in a dye
sensitized solar cell.

Keywords: Citric acid; Crystallinity; Dye-sensitized solar cell; Nanostructure, ZnO

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