Vol 6, No 6 (2015) > Mechanical Engineering >

Characterizations of Ceramic Magnets from Iron Sand

Toto Rusianto, M. Waziz Wildan, Kamsul Abraha, Kusmono Kusmono

 

Abstract:

Ceramic
magnets
with the chemical composition of barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19)
were obtained through the synthesis of magnetite powder from iron sand taken
from the Southern Coast of Yogyakarta in Indonesia. The iron sand was dissolved
and then synthesized to produce magnetite powder. Subsequently, the magnetite
powder was oxidized at temperatures of 700, 900, and 1100°C for five hours to
produce hematite. The un-oxidized magnetite and the magnetite which was
oxidized at the different temperatures were each mixed with barium carbonate,
respectively. The mixtures were then calcined at 1100°C for two hours. The calcined
products were compacted and then sintered at 1100°C for one hour to produce
sintered ceramic magnets. X-ray diffraction (XRD), a vibrating sample
magnetometer (VSM), a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an energy
dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS), and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) were
used to characterize the ceramic magnets. The results showed the magnetite that
was directly calcined, compacted, and sintered had a BaFe12O19
phase and also had the presence of a Fe2O3 phase with a
BH(max) of 0.26 MGOe, Hc of 1.27 kOe, and Ms of 31.421 emu/g. The sintered
ceramic magnet which was initially oxidized at a temperature of 900°C had a BaFe12O19
phase with a BH(max) of 0.78 MGOe, Hc of 1.95 kOe, and Ms of 46.970 emu/g.
These results indicate satisfactory results as a permanent magnet. Thus, the
iron sand from the Southern Coast of Yogyakarta in Indonesia has potential for
the production of ceramic permanent magnets.

Keywords: Barium hexaferrite; Ceramic magnets; Hematite; Iron sand; Magnetite

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