Vol 6, No 7 (2015) > Chemical Engineering >

The Effect of Styrene Monomer in the Graft Copolymerization of Arcylonitrile onto Deproteinized Natural Rubber

Tuti Indah Sari, Asep Handaya Saputra, Setijo Bismo, Dadi R. Maspanger, Adi Cifriadi



copolymerization of an acrylonitrile monomer onto
Deproteinized Natural Rubber (DPNR) is an important process in the modification
of Natural Rubber (NR) to increase its oil resistance. However, coagulation at the beginning of the process was a problem causing
a copolymerization foil to occur. The presence of a styrene monomer is therefore expected to improve the emulsion
condition so that coagulation can be prevented in the early reaction step. For
comparison purposes, the processes with and without styrene were investigated.
The influence of the concentration of styrene
as well as the ratio of the DPNR:monomer on the stabilization process
were also observed. The results showed that the addition of styrene could
improve the stabilization process as proven by Fourier
Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The presence of the functional group of CºN at FTIR
proved the production of the polyacrylonitrile in the mixture. The investigation showed that the
concentration of styrene monomer, which led to the emulsion stability, is up to 1.5 wt% concentration
of styrene at the ratio of DPNR:monomer (M) of 70:30

Keywords: Acrylonitrile; Emulsion stability; Graft copolymerization; Styrene

Full PDF Download


Aldeeb, A.A., Rogers, W.J., Mannan, M.S., 2003. Evaluation of Styrene–acrylonitrile Copolymerization Thermal Stability and Runaway Behavior. Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 104(1–3), pp. 269–282

Angnanon, S., Prasassarakich, P., Hinchiranan, N., 2011. Styrene/Acrylonitrile Graft Natural Rubber as Compatibilizer in Rubber Blends. Polymer Plastics Technology and Engineering, Volume 50(11), pp. 1170–1178

Bhattacharya, A., Misra, B.N., 2004. Grafting: A Versatile Means to Modify Polymers: Techniques, Factors and Applications. Progress in Polymer Science, Volume 29(8), pp.767–814

Chern, C.-S., 2008. Principles and Applications of Emulsion Polymerization. Taipei: John Wiley & Sons

Kaur, I., Singh, B., Gupta, N., 2005. A Study on Graft Copolymerization of Electron Donor and Electron Acceptor Monomer Mixture onto Tefzel Film. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, Volume 72(4), pp. 489–495

Kreua-Ongarjnukool, N., Pittayavinai, P., Tuampoemsab, S., 2012. Grafted Deproteinized Natural Rubber as an Impact Modifier in Styrene-methyl Methacrylate Copolymer Sheet. Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Volume 6(8), pp. 698–707

Luo, P., Wu, G., 2012. Thermo-mechanical Degradation-induced Grafting of Poly(Styrene–acrylonitrile) to Chlorinated Polyethylene. Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 97(5), pp. 766–770

Luo, Y., Xu, H., Zhu, B., 2006. The Influence of Monomer Types on the Colloidal Stability in the Miniemulsion Copolymerization Involving Alkoxysilane Monomer. Polymer, Volume 47(14), pp. 4959–4966

Man, S.H.C., Hashim, A.S., Akil, H.Md., 2008. Studies on the Curing Behaviour and Mechanical Properties of Styrene/Methyl Methacrylate Grafted Deproteinized Natural Rubber Latex. Journal of Polymer Research, Volume 15(5), pp. 357–364

Moafi, H.F., Fallah, S., Abdollah, Ali, Z.M., 2011. Photoactive Polyacrylonitrile Fibers Coated by Nano-sized Titanium Dioxide: Synthesis, Characterization, Thermal Investigation. Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society, Volume 56, pp. 610–615

Myers, R., 2003. The Basics of Chemistry. United States of America: Greenwood Publishing Group

Nacimiento, F., Alcántara, R., González, J.R., Tirado, J.L., 2012. Electrodeposited Polyacrylonitrile and Cobalt-Tin Composite Thin Film on Titanium Substrate. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, Volume 159(7), pp. A1028–A1033

Nagaty, A., Abd-Et.-Mouti, F., Mansour, O.Y., 1980. Graft Polymerization of Vinyl Monomers onto Starch by Use of Tetravalent Cerium. European Polymer Journal, Volume 16(4), pp. 343–346

Nataraj, S.K., Yang, K.S., Aminabhavi, T.M., 2012. Polyacrylonitrile-based Nanofibers—A State-of-the-Art Review. Progress in Polymer Science, Volume 37(3), pp. 487–513

Okieimen, F.E., Urhoghide, I.N., 2002. Graft Copolymerization of Acrylonitrile and Methyl Methacrylate Monomer Mixtures on Crumb Natural Rubber. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Volume V84(10), pp. 1872–1877

Prasassarakich, P., Sintoorahat, P., Wongwisetsirikul, N., 2001. Enhanced Graft Copolymerization of Styrene and Acrylonitrile onto Natural Rubber. Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan, Volume 34(2), 249–253

Pukkate, N., Yamamoto, Y., Kawahara, S., 2008. Mechanism of Graft Copolymerization of Styrene onto Deproteinized Natural Rubber. Colloid and Polymer Science, Volume 286(4), pp. 411–416

Qu, X., Shang, S., Liu, G., Zhang, L., 2002. Graft Copolymerization of Styrene and Acrylonitrile onto EPDM. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Volume 86(2), pp. 428–432

Rempp, P., Merrill, E.W., 1991. Polymer Synthesis (2nd rev. Ed.). Heidelberg, New York: Huthig & Wepf Verlag Basel

Saelao, J., Phinyocheep, P., 2005. Influence of Styrene on Grafting Efficiency of Maleic Anhydride onto Natural Rubber. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Volume 95(1), pp. 28–38

Simpson, R.B., 2002. Rubber Basics (1st Ed.). United Kingdom: Rapra Technology Limited

Sittiphan, T., Prasassarakich, P., Poompradub, S., 2014. Styrene Grafted Natural Rubber Reinforced by in situ Silica Generated via Sol–Gel Technique. Materials Science and Engineering: B, Volume 181, pp. 39–45

Smith, A.L., 1979. Applied Infrared Spectroscopy: Fundamentals, Techniques, and Analytical Problem-So Lving. New York: Wiley

Songsing, K., Vatanatham, T., Hansupalak, N., 2013. Kinetics and Mechanism of Grafting Styrene onto Natural Rubber in Emulsion Polymerization using Cumene Hydroperoxide–tetraethylenepentamine as Redox Initiator. European Polymer Journal, Volume 49(5), pp. 1007–1016

Suksawad, P., Yamamoto, Y., Kawahara, S., 2011. Preparation of Thermoplastic Elastomer from Natural Rubber Grafted with Polystyrene. European Polymer Journal, Volume 47(3), pp. 330–337

Tho, N.V., Kadir, M.O.A., Hashim, A.S., 2002. A Comparative Study of Styrene Polymerization in Deproteinized and Undeproteinized Natural Rubber Latex. Rubber Chemistry and Technology, Volume 75(1), pp. 111–118

Wongthong, P., Nakason, C., Pan, Q., Rempel, G.L., Kiatkamjornwong, S., 2013. Modification of Deproteinized Natural Rubber via Grafting Polymerization with Maleic Anhydride. European Polymer Journal, Volume 49(12), pp. 4035–4046

Wongthong, P., Nakason, C., Pan, Q., Rempel, G.L., Kiatkamjornwong, S., 2014. Styrene–assisted Grafting of Maleic Anhydride onto Deproteinized Natural Rubber. European Polymer Journal, Volume 59, pp. 144–155

Yamamoto, Y., Nghia, P.T., Klinklai, W., Saito, T., Kawahara, S., 2008. Removal of Proteins from Natural Rubber with Urea and its Application to Continuous Processes. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Volume 107(4), pp. 2329–2332

Yamamoto, Y., Sawada, T., Kawahara, S., 2007. Graft–copolymerization of Acrylonitrile onto Surfaces of Natural Rubber Particles using Deproteinized Natural Rubber Latex. Kobunshi Ronbunshu, Volume 64(3), pp. 155–160

Zhao, Y., Ma, Y., Yao, W., Huang, B., 2011. Styrene-assisted Grafting of Maleic Anhydride onto Isotactic Poly Butene-1. Polymer Engineering & Science, Volume 51(12), pp. 2483–2489