Vol 6, No 7 (2015) > Metalurgy and Material Engineering >

Analysis of Oxide Inclusions on Medical Grade 316L Stainless Steel using Local Raw

I Nyoman Jujur, Joni Sah, Agustanhakri Bakri, Agus Hadi S. Wargadipura



The type of stainless steel that is most
commonly used in bone implants is austenitic 316L stainless steel, which has an
excellent corrosion resistance and high strength. The Center for Materials
Technology, BPPT, in cooperation with a local industry, is currently
undertaking research into integrating, refining and alloying processes for the
production of medical grade 316L stainless steel, using raw material
originating from the ferronickel of Pomalaa. Natural resources of ferronickel,
one of the main raw materials for stainless steel, are locally available in
Indonesia. Other alloy metals such as steel scrap, ferro chrome and ferro
molybdenum are bought in the market. The charging calculation is done by
computer-aided simulation, before the melting processes are carried out. The
melting facility used is an induction furnace of 250 kg capacity, following the
procedures commonly used in the industry. Chemical composition analysis is done
by a spectrophotometer. Tensile and hardness tests are conducted, and a
microstructure observation is also carried out using an optical microscope and
a scanning electron microscope. The selection of raw material inputs and
refining and annealing processes affect the quality of the alloy. In our study,
we found various forms of oxide inclusions in the stainless steel
microstructure: triangular, hexagonal and spherical. The tensile strength of
the specimen of 316L stainless steel casting materials was influenced by the
presence of oxide phases.

Keywords: Bone implant; Ferronickel; Medical grade 316L stainless steel; Oxide inclusions

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